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  • Writer's pictureEric Cline

What Might Muslims Believe About...?

Updated: Jul 5, 2023

Introduction What exactly does it take to be classified as a world religion? Common among the definitions is that a world religion is "a religious belief system which has become generally recognized as having independent status from any other religion, but which nonetheless may have many, sometimes mutually antagonistic, sects or denominations."[1] What is surprising is that there are actually more languages than there are different religions. There are some 4,300 religions of the world compared with 6,800 living languages spoken somewhere in the world.[2] According to Stephen Juan, Ph.D., anthropologist at the University of Sydney, the world's 20 largest religions[3] and their number of believers are:

1. Christianity (2.1 billion) 2. Islam (1.3 billion) 3. Nonreligious (Secular/Agnostic/Atheist) (1.1 billion) 4. Hinduism (900 million) 5. Chinese traditional religion (394 million) 6. Buddhism 376 million 7. Primal-indigenous (300 million) 8. African traditional and Diasporic (100 million) 9. Sikhism (23 million) 10. Juche (19 million) 11. Spiritism (15 million) 12. Judaism (14 million) 13. Bahai (7 million) 14. Jainism (4.2 million) 15. Shinto (4 million) 16. Cao Dai (4 million) 17. Zoroastrianism (2.6 million) 18. Tenrikyo (2 million) 19. Neo-Paganism (1 million) 20. Unitarian-Universalism (800,000)

Have you ever wondered how you became involved in your current religion or why you speak a particular language? What or who placed you onto this path? If it is possible to not have a religion, how does that happen? Why do you worship the way you do? Where did you learn this ritual? Are you practicing the faith of your parents or the faith of some other influence? George Santayana, a Spanish philosopher said, "What religion a man shall have is a historical accident, quite as much as what language he shall speak."[4] However, traditional Zoroastrians believe the soul is created before being placed into a material body and that soul has chosen, according to the will of God, a specific religion. Therefore, later conversion is blasphemy.[5]

Chances are your religion promotes peace while also being fortified for conflict if necessary, to preserve your way of life or in defense of something. One might claim there is a difference between "cult" and "religion" but in reviewing Webster's definition of cult, the same definition could apply to religion.[6] In fact, Webster provides "religion" as a synonym for cult. Therefore, I present Mormonism as one of the world religions, but some might regard it as a cult. Mormons might consider Christianity as a cult. My point is to avoid classification beyond "religion". Many of us are quick to counter critical views when our faith is challenged. Keep that and the person in mind while learning of contrasting religions. I write this chapter as a Christian and present each religion and that it is likely that I will unintentionally misrepresent certain aspects of other religions. As a Christian, it is well to keep John 16:33 close to your heart, "These things I have spoken to you, that in Me you may have peace. In the world you will have tribulation; but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world." The battle has been won but the loving and learning continues. I begin with Christianity to form a framework reference and since I am writing from a broad-stroke Christian perspective, I do not elaborate on any particular denomination. Nevertheless, I do present the different denominations of some religions, such as Judaism, for a more complete introduction of world religions. The religions are not presented in any particular order.

I wanted to have some sort of structure from which to present each religion. I selected significant subjects of the Christian faith as a structure of reference to navigate through each different religion. The Western reader can step from the familiar to curiosity. Notice that I am not comparing one religion to another and my point is to not declare similarities. I am simply using a structure to provide a point of reference using terms familiar to Christianity while understanding those terms may have different meanings in other religions. I intentionally avoided writing about the "life and times" of the religion's founders because, quite frankly, some of their history and all of their myths read too much like fantasy and tales of super heroes.

My intent in providing information in this structure is to provide ready answers to the curious reader about such things as, "What is the Mormon position on Jesus?" or "Do Muslims believe in the Bible?" or "What do Jews think about resurrection?" Keep in mind that what I write about different religions is of course what I glean from my research based upon my understanding. My purpose is to convey information about the different religions while understanding with the reader that "one apple my not always compare with another apple" so to speak. For example, Sacred text in organized religions will be regarded differently in non-structured religions; gods are either visible, physical, theoretical, indescribable or some other entity; and eternity is either timeless or terminal. These are but a few examples.


Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion, and Muslims claim it is the world's second largest religion. Muslims believe that Islam means submission. Islam originated in the early seventh century CE. There are two main denominations of Islam. The majority of Muslims are Sunni and only about 10% are Shia. Muslims believe in the Koran, one of their sacred texts which was revealed to Mohammed by God through the Archangel Gabriel. There five pillars of Islam: Testimony, Prayer, Charity, Fasting (Ramadan) and Pilgrimage to Mecca. Both Sunni and Shia denominations recognize these five pillars of Islam. Sharia is the name for the religious law of Islam. The four major Sunni jurisprudence schools of Islam and Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanabali. The three major Shia schools are Ja'Fari, Zaidi, and Ismaili. Islam uses the word jihad in two different ways. To "struggle in the way of God", a form of spiritual self-protection, is the greater jihad, and when used in its militaristic form it is the lesser jihad.


Traditionally, Allah is the same God as the Christian God but not theologically.[1] The god of Islam, Allah, is a unitarian god, not a father, and is without the Son Jesus Christ and without the Holy Spirit. Muslims regard their faith as monotheistic and view the Christian faith as polytheistic because of the Trinity – that God is Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as One. Muslims see this as having three separate gods. Muslims can know Allah by the attributes such as mercy and justice, but they believe they cannot know the essence of Allah. Unlike the Christian God, Allah wills good and bad. Allah does not love like the Christian God because to love is to have need and this is quite impossible for the all-powerful Allah.[2] There is plenty of evidence in the Bible about God's personal experience among believers but Allah having that kind of personal experience is not found in the Quran. The Christian God is Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Allah is without the Trinity and is the revealer of the Qur'an whereas the Bible is the breathed Word of God. The two descriptions are mutually exclusive.

John Paul II said, “We believe in the same God, the one God, the living God, the God who created the world and brings his creatures to their perfection.”[3] He follows this up with, "We know that in the light of the full Revelation in Christ, this mysterious oneness cannot be reduced to a numerical unity."[4] The Qur'an teaches that Allah had no son. Witnessing to a Muslim "…God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life John 3:16) will certainly cause confusion.

[1] Winfried Corduan, Neighboring Faiths, A Christian Introduction to World Religions, (Downers Grove, IN: IVP Academic Press, 2012) p. 114 Author Wilfried Corduan differentiates Allah and Yahweh historically and theologically. He contends they are the same historically but theologically they are mutually exclusive. [2] Al-Ghazali, quoted in John Elder, The Biblical Approach to the Muslim (Madison, GA: Source of Light Ministries International, 2000); in the World of Islam; also quoted in Ron Rhodes, Reasoning from the Scriptures with Muslims (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 2010) p.103 [3] (Insegnamenti, VIII/2, [1985], p. 497). [4] Ibid.,


Jesus is not, and cannot be, the Son of God (Allah) because that would require Allah to have sexual relations with Mary, mother of Jesus, and this is highly offensive to Muslims. Jesus was a mere prophet along with Adam, Noah, Abraham, David,[9] and potentially thousands of other prophets of Allah. Jesus even called Himself a prophet in Matt. 13:53-57. The miracles performed by Jesus were enabled by Allah. Muslims content that there were no eyewitnesses to the crucifixion because all of the disciples fled. Therefore, Jesus did not die and did not ascend into heaven. Some Muslims believe that Jesus was in fact crucified but that He did not die but merely "swooned", in other words, he fainted. Most agree the Qur'an proves that Jesus died and was resurrected (Surah 19, Maryam, verse 33).

Holy Spirit

Muslims do not acknowledge a Holy Spirit (paraclete) but rather a promised Counselor as revealed in the Quran Sura 61:6 as well as in the Christian Bible, John 14:16, "And I will pray the Father, and He will give you another Helper, that He may abide with you forever—."[10] Mohamed "Ahmad" is the periclytos which can be interpreted as being similar to paraclete.[11] Muslims have different conceptions of the Holy Spirit and interpret Holy Spirit differently that do Christians. For Muslims, the Holy Spirit is indeed a spirit as the angel Gabriel. This is quite different than the Christian Holy Spirit as the mutual charity between Father and Son who are absolutely united in the Spirit. It was Gabriel who visited the Virgin Mary. And Muslims believe it was Gabriel who revealed the Quran to Mohammed.[12]


Muslims reject the doctrine of the Trinity. Muslim view the Trinity as tritheism, as three gods. "The Trinity constitutes thinly veiled polytheism, and it is blasphemous to thing that God can have a son."[13] At one point it was understood as God, Jesus, and Mary which may have been from the Quran, Sura 5:116 where it is written, "And [beware the Day] when Allah will say, "O Jesus, Son of Mary, did you say to the people, 'Take me and my mother as deities besides Allah ?'" He will say, "Exalted are You! It was not for me to say that to which I have no right. If I had said it, You would have known it. You know what is within myself, and I do not know what is within Yourself. Indeed, it is You who is Knower of the unseen."


The incarnation never happened. Allah never became flesh or took on human form.


The Qur'an is the sacred scripture of Islam. Muslims believe the Bible is corrupt with contradictions and therefore inaccurate. For example, in Gen. 2:17 it says, "but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.” However, in Gen. 5:5 "So all the days that Adam lived were nine hundred and thirty years; and he died."[14] Additionally, there are many versions of the Bible (NIV, ESV, KJV, etc.) and only one Qur'an. Muslims consider the Qur'an a recitation and the word of God (Allah). The Qur'an is about four-fifths the length of the New Testament. In addition to the Qur'an, Muslims abide by the teachings of Mohammed contained in the Sunnah, a collection of traditions built on Mohammed's conduct and when used in conjunction with the Qur'an it is called the Hadith.


Baptism was originally just a bath or ablution for purification physically, ritually, and spiritually. It was something a person could do their self. Muslims accept the early tradition and that is what Islam has preserved and reaffirmed. Islam has preserved this tradition in the form of ablution and ritual Ghusl[15] for purification purpose. But Paul gave a new definition of Baptism. For him, it was something to do with Original Sin and then the alleged death and resurrection of Jesus[16] of which Muslims reject. Muslims also do not accept the later interpretation and doctrinal aberrations.[17]


Muslim might ask questions or make statements such as, "How did it occur to Christians that eating bread and drinking wine could symbolize such a strange idea as eating their worshipped God's flesh and drinking His blood? How dare they drink wine since it is strictly forbidden in the Old Testament in which they believe as part of their faith. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence that Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) advised them to do so. The Christian concept of sin and it's means for forgiveness are irrational, illogical, perverted, damaging to man's physical, mental, social, and spiritual health and well-being.[18]


Salvation is found in complete surrender (Islam) to Allah. Since Muslims do not believe Jesus as The Savior, atonement for sin is not necessary. Islam is not a redemptive religion. Salvation is not guaranteed no matter the number of good works by a Muslim. Allah ultimately decides salvation. "Since Islam relies on an unattainable standard of perfection, it can never in the final analysis provide certain assurance of salvation."[19]


There is no atonement as in the Christian sense. Muslims are commanded to ask Allah for forgiveness and when they do, they can only hope for forgiveness. Muslims must try to make amends for their sins e.g. give to charity, compensate people they have wronged as well as ask God forgiveness. Islam as a practical religion consists of actions as well as faith and prayers. A sinner must repent before his death according to the Holy Qur'an and the tradition of the infallible Imams. Repentance should be done privately and secretively.[20] The sinner's sins are not automatically forgiven until six conditions are met: 1) The sinner's repentance must be sincere; 2) the sin must not be repeated; 3) never infringe on the rights of others; 4) fulfill all neglected obligatory acts such as zakat (alms giving), prayer, and sadaqah (charity); 5) Self-mortification (fasting) from unlawful foods; and 6) endure the acts of worship with the same enthusiasm as the pleasure of the sin.


The Quran, which according to Islamic tradition has its original in heaven, frequently calls attention to the heavens as a sign of God’s sovereignty, justice, and mercy. "When the earth was just formed and the sky a mere vapour, God commanded them to join together, and they willingly submitted" (sura 41:11–12). God then completed his creation by forming the sky into seven firmaments, adorning the lower firmament with lights, and assigning to everything just measure. "The seven heavens and the earth perpetually celebrate God’s praise" (sura 17:44) and by their majestic design provide evidence that God indeed has the power to raise the dead and to judge them on the last day.[21]


Islam views Hell as punishment. "…and has prepared for them a flaming Fire (Hell). Wherein they will abide forever, and they will find neither a protector, nor a helper. On the Day when their faces will be turned over in the Fire, they will say: 'Oh, would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger' (Quran 33:64-66). "Those in Hell will cry out to Allah and Allah will tell them, 'remain you in it, in a state of humiliation! And do not speak to Me'" (Quran 23:107-108).


Not only do Muslims believe in angels, but it is also one of the pillars or articles of their faith. The greatest of the Angels is Gabriel. Angels are not divine or semi-divine, but they have great powers given by God. They are created of light and are incapable of sin. They are not God’s associates running different districts of the universe. Also, they are not entities to be worshipped or prayed to, as they do not deliver prayers to God. They transmit God's instructions to man. They do not eat or drink and can take on human form. They all submit to God and carry out His commands. Of all the angels, Gabriel and Michael are the only ones mentioned by name in the Christian Bible. According to Sura 50:17, each person is assigned two angels, one to record the good and one to record the bad. "There are also angels responsible for breathing the soul into the fetus and writing down its provisions, life-span, actions, and whether it will be wretched or happy."[22]

In the Islamic worldview, there are no fallen angels: they are not divided into ‘good’ and ‘evil’ angels. Human beings do not become angels after death. Satan is not a fallen angel, but is one of the jinn, a creation of God parallel to human beings and angels.[23] The Jinn are evil spirits led by the devil.[24]


Neither the Quran nor the Hadith (saying attributed to Mohammed) has much to say about death but the Book of the Soul, written in the 14th century by Ḥanbalī theologian Muḥammad ibn Abī-Bakr ibn Qayyīm al-Jawzīyah, has a spectacular claim of life after death. I found reference to the Book of the Soul on the Encyclopedia Britannica website and my continued search for other writings landed me at the website[25] which had a word-for-word rendition of what I initially found. My point is that I did not find any other resources for Book of the Soul. However, what my search revealed about the purported Islamic beliefs of death were astonishing. For example, Allah creates, determines life span, and causes death. "It is orthodox Muslim belief that when someone dies the Angel of Death (malāk al-mawt) arrives, sits at the head of the deceased, and addresses each soul according to its known status."[26] The soul leaves the body, goes to seventh heaven, where it is returned to the body. Muslims have great respect for the dead, reject cremation and postmortem examinations. Medical students practice on imported corpses.


Muslims refer to the devil as Iblis. God cast Iblis out of heaven for being disobedient. Iblis tempted Adam and Eve in the Garden as well as Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law. Muslim scholars struggle to identify Iblis as either an angel or jinni, a contradiction in terms, as angels are created of light and are incapable of sin, while jinn are created of fire and can sin.[27]

Muslims have many obligations but there are five core compulsions, referred to as pillars, and the last is pilgrimage (hajj) where every Muslim is expected to visit Mecca at least once in their lifetime. There are several main components while Muslims are at Mecca and at the last component of hajj, each pilgrim throws nine stones at three pillars representing the devil. Many misunderstand this ritual and accuse Muslims of throwing rocks at the devil. "We stone the Jamarat, not any devil, Shaitan or Shayateen (pl. of Shaitan). The pillars of Jamarat are not devils."[28] However, on the same website reference, and quoting Abu Haamid al-Ghazaali, a famous scholar of the past said, "Remember that you are outwardly throwing pebbles at al-'Aqabah but in fact you are throwing them in the face of shaitan and you are breaking his back with them, because nothing annoys him except your obeying the command of Allah out of veneration for Him…"


Muslims reject original sin. What Adam did was not contagious. Adam was a prophet of Allah and prophets never make grave sin. Adam merely goofed, repented, and all was well. Muslims believe that all people are born innocent. "Whatever good happens to you is from God; whatever evil befalls you is from yourself" (sura 4:79). After birth, somewhere along the line humans become weak and forgetful (sura 4:28) and they sin as a result of disobedience to Allah's laws. Atonement is not necessary because after a person asks Allah for forgiveness, Allah either forgives or chooses not to forgive (Sura 4:17). Sins committed should not be confessed to anyone but Allah.[29]

Christians claim that sin separates one from God (Yahweh), a spiritual death. This is one of the reasons why Muslims claim the Bible is contradictory. In Gen. 2:17 it says Adam will die if he eats the forbidden fruit but in Gen. 5:5 it says Adam died at 930 years old. Dead is dead but Christians claim the first death was spiritual because of sin and the death at 930 years old was physical.


Muslims do not regard a blood sacrifice as having communion between God and His worshippers as that believed by Christians. Allah needs neither blood nor flesh. There is no foundation in Islam for Lev. 17:11, "For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that makes atonement for the soul."[30] However, Muslims do have sacrifices, blood-covenants, and consecration by blood.[31] The Feast of Sacrifice or Eid al-Adha is one of the holidays where Muslims celebrate the tradition of prophet Abraham offering his son Ishmael as a sacrifice in obedience to Allah. Christians contend the son was Isaac because they say Ishmael was disinherited by Abraham and therefore, Isaac was his only son, but Muslims believe the Jews switched names.[32]


"Heaven is an ideal desert oasis with fruit trees, shade, refreshing drinks and beautiful companions. In hell the damned drink boiling, fetid water."[33] When the trumpet blows, the resurrection will follow, and the living and the dead will stand before Allah for judgement. The righteous will receive in their right hand a book of all their recorded deeds. The wicked will receive their book in their left hand (traditionally the unclean hand). Heaven is a reward of physical pleasure for those who are obedient, and Hell is tormented punishment for those who may only merely profess Islam (submission) but are yet disobedient the laws of Allah. However, Muslims are not assured of Heaven even if they do all that is favorable to Allah. (In theory, Muslims have assurance only if they perfectly adhere to the commandments of Allah, an impossible standard).[34] The assurance claimed by Christians is presumptive and seems to be dictating how God must respond. Allah decides the fate and controls life and death for Muslims.


Muslims do not call it church. They gather at the mosque for worship while believing the entire world is a mosque so that they can worship anywhere. Women are not obligated to attend the mosque. The call to prayer, muezzin, precedes entry in the mosque. Salah (prayer) is led by an Imam (the one who is leading).[35] Before worship, Muslims must perform wudu, a ritual cleansing. Sunni Muslims wash their hands, mouth, nose, face, arms, forehead and hair, ears, and feet three times – in that order. Shi'ah Muslims wash their face first, then arms and use the moisture to wipe their head and feet. The differences in the manner of ritual cleansing result in differing interpretations of the Qur'an regarding wudu.

The shoes are removed before entering the mosque, and men and women sit on the floor in separate areas facing the qiblah (prayer wall) in the direction of Mecca. Corporately, Muslims complete several rak'ahs (movements and words) of prayer, reciting portions of the Qur'an. The movements involve prostration, kneeling, bowing, and standing upright. Muslims can also offer up personal prayers afterwards, called du'a.


There is no formal clergy. Imams are not ordained, and there is no "pecking order." However, there is an International Union of Muslim Scholars (IAMS) headed by Ahmad al-Raysuni, headquartered in Qatar, and having the supreme authority of the Muslim Brotherhood.[36] Muslims are responsible to Allah only and no one can direct another or even bless another. Men are required to attend mosque and the one most familiar with the Qur'an and Islamic principles gives the sermon and leads the worship. This person may be regarded as a Muslim scholar, but they "cannot forgive sins, bless people, or change the law of God. They impart information they have acquired by reference to the Qur'an and Sunnah; by the nobility of their character they inspire others to be better."[37] Woman conduct worship at home with the children.


The sound of trumpets will announce judgement day. Qiyamah, also referred to as Yawm al-Qiyamah, is the Islamic concept of resurrection, is when all humans will be brought back to their original form and each person will be examined by their deeds in the day of judgement. "[A]n angel on our right shoulder writes down our good deeds, and an angel on our left shoulder writes down our bad deeds. Allah weighs the book of deeds on a scale and determines our final destination."[38] When a person dies, their soul stays with the body and remains "alive" while the body rots. Two angels will examine the deeds of the soul and the soul will experience comfort or distress until resurrection.[39]


Originating in what is now Saudi Arabia, Islam is the youngest among major world religions and yet is one of the largest. It is incorrect to refer to Islam as "Mohammedanism."[40] The main tenet of Islam is submission, submission to Allah. In addition to the five pillars of faith mentioned in the introduction, the six doctrines of Islam every Muslim is required to believe are God, Angels, Scripture, Mohammed, The end times, and Predestination. The reader is encouraged to review "How The Qur'an Contradicts The Bible" in the book So What's The Difference? written by Fritz Ridenour.

[1], STANDS4 LLC, 2020."world religion." Accessed August 21, 2020.< [2] Stephen Juan, Ph.D. What are the most widely practiced religions of the world? The Register. [3] Ibid., [4] Neil Philip, The Religions Book, (Penquin Random House, 1974) p. 14 [5] Anonymous, [6] Cult: a small religious group that is not part of a larger and more accepted religion and that has beliefs regarded by many people as extreme or dangerous. Cult: a situation in which people admire and care about something or someone very much or too much. Cult: a small group of very devoted supporters or fans [7] Winfried Corduan, Neighboring Faiths, A Christian Introduction to World Religions, (Downers Grove, IN: IVP Academic Press, 2012) p. 114 Author Wilfried Corduan differentiates Allah and Yahweh historically and theologically. He contends they are the same historically but theologically they are mutually exclusive. [8] Al-Ghazali, quoted in John Elder, The Biblical Approach to the Muslim (Madison, GA: Source of Light Ministries International, 2000); in the World of Islam; also quoted in Ron Rhodes, Reasoning from the Scriptures with Muslims (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 2010) p.103 [9] Sura 3:33-34, 4:163, 6:83-86 [10] Comforter, Gr. Parakletos [11] Ron Rhodes, Reasoning from the Scriptures with Muslims (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 2010) p.63 [12] Winfried Corduan, p. 109 [13] Corduan, p. 131 [14] Adam died a spiritual death the day he ate the forbidden fruit and a physical death after 930 years. [15] Ghusl, in Islam, the “major ablution” that entails washing the entire body in ritually pure water and is required in specified cases for both the living and the dead. The ghusl, accompanied by a statement of intent, must be performed whenever a state of major ritual impurity has been incurred: following sexual intercourse, seminal emission, menstruation, or childbirth. One who is junub (impure) cannot perform the daily ritual prayer, circumambulate the Kaʿbah in Mecca during the major and lesser pilgrimages, touch the Quran or recite its verses, or enter a mosque. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica < [16] See Col. 2:12 [17] Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi 25 December, 2017 < [18] Knowing Allah, < [19] Winfried Corduan, p.134 [20] Sayyid Moustafa Al-Qazwini, The Day of Judgement and Resurrection, < [21] The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica < [22] Islam < [23] Islam < [24] Winfried Corduan, p. 114 [25] < [26] Christopher Pallis, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Death, May 7, 2020 < [27] Iblis, < [28] Muslimink, < [29] Sayyid Moustafa Al-Qazwini, The Day of Judgement and Resurrection, < [30]Kitab al-Adah (Book of Sacrifices), < [31] Samuel M. Zwemer, Atonement by Blood Sacrifice, The Moslem World, Vol. XXXVI, No. 3, July 1946, < [32] Islam 101, < [33] Corduan, p.117 [34] Corduan, p. 118 [35] Masjid al-Muslimiin, < [36] A portrait of Muslim Brotherhood's supreme authority, The Jerusalem Post, [37] Masjid al-Muslimiin, < [38] Huda. "Definition of Yawm al-Qiyamah." Learn Religions, Aug. 27, 2020,< Huda is an educator, school administrator, and author who has more than two decades of experience researching and writing about Islam online. Huda earned a M.Ed., from Loyola University-Maryland, and a BS., in Child Development, Oregon State University. [39] Sayyid M. Al-Qazwini, The Day of Judgement and Resurrection < [40] Fritz Ridenour, So What's The Difference? (Bloomington, MN: Bethany House, 2014) p. 76

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